Milestones and future expectations for soil disinfestation after 45 years of soil disinfestation symposia (1973-2018)
. In IX INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON SOIL AND SUBSTRATE DISINFESTATION
; IX INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON SOIL AND SUBSTRATE DISINFESTATION; Int Soc Hort Sci, 2020; Vol. 1270, pp. 1-7.Abstract
The soil disinfestation (SD) symposia have contributed to the progress of SD research, and to cooperation among scientists and industry leaders. These symposia reflect the development of new or rediscovered SD measurements and their application in soilborne pathogen research, environmental awareness, regulation, and especially the impact of the methyl bromide (MB) phaseout. During these symposia, studies on microbial activities in soil were frequently discussed. The performance of old fumigants, e.g., chloropicrin, metam sodium, and MB, and the relatively new fumigants, e.g., DMDS, methyl iodide, and certain nematicides were thoroughly discussed and debated. Physical tools, e.g., soil steaming, played a minor role. In the mid-1990s, the performance of non-chemical tools and their mode of action became an important part in these symposia, including soil solarization, biofumigation, organic amendments, anaerobic SD, biocontrol, soilless culture, physical tools, and others. Related topics are integrated pest management (with an emphasis on combining methods of control), soil suppressiveness, soil health, diagnostics, decision-making tools, and others. The MB phaseout crisis, which was very severe since only a few alternatives were available at the time, had a major impact on SD research, prompting the development of chemical and non-chemical alternatives. We are now in a better situation because we depend on a larger variety of SD tools, but the long-term effects of the newly introduced technologies have to be studied, and therefore continuous monitoring of disinfested soils is necessary.